SWIPE is a mnemonic which stands for the following influencers of total measurement performance:
S- The Standard, is it certified and when, is it the proper class. For example in setting a bore gage to gage a 1″ hole having a .0005″ Bandwidth tolerance, if one were to use a class Y tolerance master, the uncertainty of the master alone could be as much as .0001″ which is 20% of the total tolerance of the hole to begin with. The roundness of the master may be up to .00005″ which is already 10% of the Gage R&R.
W- The Workpiece, every part varies, some more than others. Are the R&R operators aware of the variation within a part? Does the part have intrinsic taper, out of roundness conditions, surface finish variations etc. that can affect the measurements. Just by not making measurements in the same place or zone on the part repeatedly can cause the R&R to suffer significantly. A .0001″ out of roundness condition can consume 20% of the total part tolerance using the example above.
I- The Instrument itself obviously has linearity, and repeatability characteristics. Whatever they may be, clearly they add to the gaging uncertainty. In addition certain instruments are more prone to operator loading, use and care.
P- The Personnel and their ability to adapt the gage to the part is an ever important factor. Surely the gages vulnerability to operator influence can be considered the gage’s fault. However, one should not discount the variation in touch and experience that the operator brings to these tests. With some operators and their influence there may be no gages or inspection equipment made to perform the measuring task at hand. Surely an enigma, but best handled when best understood.
E- The Environment. Parts that are dirty, oily, or hot or even cold are poor candidates for R&R testing methods. They may represent the real world conditions but offer no stable ground on which to buyoff on a gages ability.
So there you have it, the SWIPE scenario. The answer may very well be that considering all of the variables, the only one that can be rectified is the gage’s intrinsic accuracy and repeatability. In this case it becomes necessary to obtain gages of a higher order. This may mean changing from Mechanically applied hand tools to Electronic or Air Gage tooling. These tools permit higher resolution and linearity and repeatability. They limit operator influence and offer output to SPC and signaling modules. The cost may increase but the value per item measured makes these types of tools irreplaceable.