Understanding Dual Master Air Gage Systems

When it comes to choosing an air gage, you have two main options: single master or dual master. While they each come with their own benefits, there is no one better option and the perfect choice will depend on your needs. In this article, we give you a brief overview of the differences between single and dual master air gage systems as well as a more in-depth look into dual master systems and their benefits.

How Single Master Air Gage Systems Work

Although single master systems tend to be costlier, this is because they have to be manufactured to the highest standards in order to ensure accuracy. As accuracy is built into both the display and air tooling, linearity is known throughout the entire range and they are fixed to work only with tooling that is compatible pneumatically. This enables users to set the air gage to a pneumatic zero for comparative measurements without the need to adjust magnification.

This fixed magnification system means that a specific amplifier is needed for each individual tool, and additional tools are required to verify system calibration. This all adds up to a higher cost. However, the plus is that single master air gage systems provide excellent stability, not being susceptible to small changes in pressure.

Building A Dual Master Air Gage System

An alternative to single master systems is the dual master system. As the name implies, dual master air gaging systems make use of two masters when setting the pneumatic range as opposed to being made to fixed characteristics. The tooling and display systems are set by the user to ensure that the span matches that of the minimum and maximum masters.

When a dual master system is used, the responsivity of all components within the system are set simultaneously, which goes a long way in ensuring that all the different parts work together to display master values accurately. These parts include the air hoses, air flow restrictors, air jet nozzles and more.

The Problem with Manual Knobs on Dual Master Systems

Dual master systems are built around a back pressure system that is adjustable, where a display monitors the change in pressure. This occurs when the air jet nears the surface it is supposed to measure and encounters restriction. This system consists of two user controls – one for zero and one for span – which are responsible for adjusting the span, which will then be displayed on the masters.

The problem with older dual master systems is that these controls have to be adjusted concurrently in order to achieve the required span. As these controls respond to each other instead of working individually, getting the precise span can prove to be a task. While this is not a problem for experienced users, for whom this process has become natural, it can take new users a lot of time and effort to get it just right.

Electronic Dual Master Air Gage Systems

With the introduction of new technology came about electronic dual master air gage systems. While some still make use of the two-control system to achieve the desired span, many newer models have eliminated the use of manual controls. These models make use of the air transducer to determine the range, with the user keying in the minimum and maximum master values on the display.

However, similar to single master systems, dual master systems come with their own benefits and unique applications. The largest selling point is that they can be used with a wider range of air tooling due to the adjustable magnification, although it is possible for linearity to suffer under certain circumstances. In addition, they can be used with extremely small and extremely large jets, which allows for both short range and long range as well as high and low tolerance applications. These systems are also easy to clean and maintain due to the higher air pressure which cleans coolants and oils from the part.

Choosing between a single or dual master air gage system largely depends on the unique needs of your industry. While they both come with their benefits, there is no single best system, only the one that will suit you better.

How To Measure Thousands Of Parts

Have you ever needed to measure thousands of parts, all with different configurations? You may have considered using air gaging thanks to their ability to measure precision tapers quickly and accurately, but this can require many different air tools to suit each component combination. Not only is this troublesome, it can also result in a logistics nightmare.

When a manufacturer of orthopaedic implants met with this problem, Mahr managed to find a solution by designing a master air tool with multiple spacers and numerous jet settings. This meant that the user could use a single tool to measure the various components, regardless of length. This is achieved by measuring each part to choose the most suitable spacer.

In addition, the manufacturer had another request: they wanted to be able to use the gage in different work cells. This would allow them to measure multiple parts from separate machines. To meet this requirement, Mahr came up with a custom touchscreen gaging computer that is capable of the following:

  • Storing all part files, selecting the proper tool based on part number
  • Pulling the appropriate calibration offsets
  • Storing measurements for future documentation
  • Printing customer reports

With this new and innovative measuring system by Mahr, the manufacturer was able to use a single device to measure different manufacturing cells.

What You Need To Know About Digital Height Gages

Digital height gages can almost be likened to giant calipers, thanks to their long range of motion. They also come with the additional benefit of more sophisticated accuracy, equivalent to that of a bench top gaging system. This makes digital height gages versatile instruments capable of producing a range of measurements timely and accurately. On top of that, they are extremely user-friendly, being easy to use and maintain. In this article, we share with you everything you need to know about this incredibly versatile instrument.

Components of Digital Height Gages

Digital height gages consist of several parts:

  • Height measuring station: Used mainly for measuring diameters and distances between two points, the measuring station is designed to produce vertical one-dimensional coordinate measurements. In certain cases, two-dimensional measurements can be possible if the test piece is able to be titled by 90 degrees and the evaluation display is equipped to calculate these coordinates.
  • Base plate: The base plate sits on the bottom of the height measuring station and serves an important function. This base plate is usually a grade 0 or 1 granite base plate mounted on a stand that can withstand vibrations to prevent inaccuracy of results.
  • Evaluation display.

Of course, the accuracy of the results will depend on the quality of your digital height gage as well as whether regular care and maintenance have been carried out.

Maintaining and Caring for Your Digital Height Gage

To prolong the lifespan of your instrument and ensure the most accurate results possible, below are some steps you should make a habit of practicing:

  • Clean the table and surrounding area that your digital height gage is on as well as the contact probe after every use.
  • After turning on, let the gage set its reference location and sit by itself for a minute before re-zeroing it.
  • Manually remaster the probe diameter from time to time.
  • Store the instrument away from direct sunlight, radiators and anywhere that may let in drafts.
  • Keep the base plate clean and free from any dirt or chips.
  • Avoid touching any component of the instrument with your bare hands. The body temperature of humans tends to be above room temperature, and if any heat was to be transported to the instrument, it can cause heat expansion and result in inaccuracy. Always use gloves when handling your height gage.
  • Do not touch the instrument unnecessarily – only touch the components that are meant for this purpose such as the handle and switch.
  • Before measuring a test piece, always make sure that it is at optimal temperature. If a test piece has just been transported from a very hot or cold location, let it cool down or warm up before measuring it.
  • Wait for the test piece to stop moving completely before noting down its measurement. When it is moving, the results can fluctuate. It can be good to adjust the gage setting time accordingly.
  • As a general rule, air bearings should only be used to position the gage before taking a measurement. If for any reason they are required during a measurement, the air bearings should also be switched on when the measurement is being taken.

Although the quality of your digital height gage is important when it comes to accuracy, proper care and maintenance can go a long way in prolonging its lifespan and ensuring that results are not compromised by external variables. A quick routine check after every use can go a long way in giving you peace of mind that your instrument is in the best possible condition to continue serving you for as long as possible.

Digimar® 814 SR – A Scribing and Measuring Height Gage

Digital instruments are fast becoming the preferred way of taking measurements for their fast and accurate reading of results. With the Digimar 814 SR, you can easily measure heights and distances for scribing and making workpieces.

The Digimar 814 SR is available in two sizes: 350mm/14″ and 600mm/24″. They share certain common features, including the below:

  • 12mm, high-contrast LCD display
  • Stable foot that makes grippy easy
  • Hardened and rustproof slider and rail
  • Hardened and lapped standing surface
  • Handwheel for measuring and positioning
  • Locking screw that enables fine tuning
  • Exchangeable measuring and scribing tip
  • USB and wireless
  • Runs on Opto RS-232C

To find out more information on the Digimar 814 SR, please click here.

Optimizing The Use Of Your Portable Surface Roughness Tester

New strides in technology have transformed the surface Roughness tester from a chunky three-piece equipment that had to be pushed around on a cart into a sleek, portable gadget. Today’s surface gauges are much more affordable next to the tens of thousands of dollars pioneering models cost, and they can do it all as well. However, there are some things you can take note of to optimize the use of your portable surface gauge – let us spell them out for you below.

Ensure the roughness gage is Functioning Properly Before Use

You should always check that a roughness gage is functioning properly before use with the help of a separate test patch or test specimen. Some gauges have a built-in test specimen that you can use to check your gauge by moving the probe over to it and making a trace. Alternatively, you can use a test patch; however, these are not easy to obtain as they are kept under lock and key due to the traceability of the specimens.

Check the Settings for the Parameter

Most roughness gages come with a feature allowing you to select the number of cutoffs, length of cutoffs, traverse speed and more. Make sure that these settings correspond with the test conditions required for your inspection process.

Check the Surface Test Environment

The results of surface roughness measurements can be affected by environmental conditions such as the presence of dirt and oil. In order to get the most accurate measurement and protect your gauge, always make sure that the environment is free from oils, dirt and burrs. Next, always make sure that the area is undisturbed from loud sounds and vibrations that can significantly alter measurements. This can come from a passing truck or even a radio that has the volume on too high.

Check that Results Make Sense and Save For Future Review

Always keep a reference patch nearby so that you are able to tell immediately if the measurements are not coming in the right denominations. That’s when you know there is something wrong with the roughness gage or probe that needs to be addressed before proceeding.

After the measuring process is completed, make sure to save your results for easy reference and analysis. Most gauges on the market today come with internal storage, making it incredibly convenient to store data with just one click.

Get the New MarSurf M310 from Willrich Precision!

With a rotatable 4.3” resolution touch screen, the new MarSurf M310 is designed to provide the most precise surface roughness measurements. Successor to the MarSurf M300, the M310 allows for easy transfers of data via cable or Bluetooth, offering in one mobile-sized device what used to be only available in PC-based systems.

If you have any questions or would like to find out more about our MarSurf M310 and its benefits, do not hesitate to contact us today. Or if you are looking to purchase a new surface gauge, check out the wide range we stock at Willrich Precision Instruments. With over 45 years of experience in metrology, gaging and inspection, we have the solution, whatever it is you are looking for.

Why Hardness Testing Is Essential

The hardness of a material is its inherent property that allows it to withstand abrasion, bending, scratching, cutting or deformation. If your day to day work involves materials manufacturing, you are most likely aware of the importance of a hardness test in allowing you to evaluate the products received from external suppliers and also, the production process of internally manufactured products.

Baseline measurements have to be defined and set in place in order to make sure that your products meet the required quality specifications in terms of strength. However, if you are new to the field, you might be unaware that the hardness of any material is not an intrinsic property but rather, the value obtained from a hardness test stems from a specific measurement sequence. Read on to find out more about hardness testing and how it can be performed!

Types Of Hardness Testing

For many materials in the 21st century, a hardness test comprises of using a device that impacts the material with a defined amount of force over a specific amount of time before measuring the depth of the groove left behind. The commonly used hardness tests that measures the relationship between hardness and the depth of the indentation can be classified into the Rockwell, Brinell and Vickers hardness test.

Rockwell Hardness Test

Rockwell hardness tests is one of the most commonly used hardness tests in the market due to its fast speed and high accuracy in determining the hardness of numerous materials such as metals, plastics and allows. When conducting this test, a hardened steel ball indenter or a diamond cone would be pushed into the material with a test force of 10kgf. Upon attaining equilibrium, more force would be used in order to cause a greater indentation depth. Once equilibrium is reached again, the force is removed, and the permanent depth of the indentation made would be used to determine the Rockwell hardness number of the material.

Additional Benefits Of Hardness Testing

By conducting a hardness test, the results obtained can be used to predict and determine the extent whereby the tested material can perform under various conditions. For example, by measuring the hardness at various temperature and humidity conditions can simulate and allow you to know if the hardness of the material would be impacted by storing it in a humid warehouse. If the hardness measurements remained constant, it indicates that the material can be stored normally. Otherwise, special precautions must then be taken to ensure proper storage of the material. Another instance would be testing the material’s hardness under prolonged exposure to various chemicals. This would allow you to determine the material’s resistance to chemicals and if special caution needs to be taken to ensure the functionality of the material is not affected by a chemical exposure.


All in all, a hardness test is a crucial test that you must adopt in ensuring that your product meets the stated quality specifications.

At Willrich Precision Instrument, we provide a large selection of hardness testers that would definitely meet the rigorous needs of your business! Browse through our exciting inventory and shop for quality surface roughness testers today. If you need assistance with any product purchase, call us at 866-945-5742 or email us at sales@willrich.com today.

Understanding Bore Gages

A bore gage is an instrument that is frequently used to measure the internal of a hole. It is also known by many names such as bore mics, hole tests, holtests, internal micrometers or cylinder tests depending on your geographical region. It operates on the basis whereby parts known as the anvils expanding outward in order to determine its diameter when inserted into the hole. Read on to find out more about the characteristics and uses of bore gages.

Types Of Bore Gages

There are numerous types of bore gages in the market, with the more common types being bore gages with two or three anvils respectively. Bore gages with two anvils are cheaper and are calibrated with gauge blocks whereas those with three anvils are known as internal micrometers and are calibrated with setting rings. Both types can make use of either a digital or dial scale to display the measured diameter of the hole. Apart from the common bore gages, there are also more specific types specializing in various measurements, such as the dial bore gages, small hole gages and telescopic bore gages.

Sizes Of Bore Gages

Depending on the diameter of the hole that you are measuring, you would require different types of bore gauges that have various measurement sizes. If you are looking for a bore gage that can measure a wide range of sizes, an adjustable bore gage would be the equipment that is suited for your needs! However, this type of gage suffers from a lower tolerance in the measured diameter. If a high degree of accuracy is demanded in the final product, plug gages, which comes in fixed sizes would be the equipment that you have been looking for. Plug gages can be customized accordingly to your requirements, making them available in both small and large sizes.

Uses Of Bore Gages

With the high level of precision obtainable in a bore gage, there are many applications where it can be used such as the measurement of pipes, holes and cylinders, which are commonplace in the manufacturing, automotive and equipment calibration industries. Inspectors and maintenance staffs utilize bore gages to inspect the dimensions inside injection moldings to ensure that its quality are up to the desired standards, or in extruder barrels to monitor wear and tear over an extended period of time to find out when preventive maintenance can be carried out. Mechanics and machinists also make use of these equipment to detect the extent of wear and tear in cylinder heads and also to accurately measure holes in an engine block to ensure that the pistons fit tightly to prevent any gas leakages.


With the numerous potential applications of bore gages and its ease of customizability in terms of types and sizes, it serves as a handy tool that can greatly assist you in the measurement of a hole’s internal diameter.
At Willrich Precision Instrument, we provide a wide range of bore gages that would definitely meet the rigorous needs of your business! Browse through our exciting inventory and shop for quality bore gages today. If you need assistance with any product purchase, call us at 866-945-5742 or email us at sales@willrich.com today.

A Short Course On Measuring Pitch Diameters

Do you know that bolts, tapes, dies and other helically threaded components are characterized by various parameters? These parameters include depth, angle, pitch, major and minor diameters, whereby the pitch diameter holds the most significance amongst these parameters. Read on to find out more about the importance and the process of measuring pitch diameters!

What is a Pitch Diameter?

To many of us, the effective diameter, also known as the pitch diameter, refers to the diameter of the cylinder as it cuts the midpoint of both the major and minor diameters known as the pitch line. The pitch diameter is an important property that governs the compatibility between two threaded parts, such as nuts and bolts and if they can be successfully mated with each other. Moreover, they are also used as a crucial reference for other relevant thread measurements.

Measurement of Pitch Diameter

Due to the large susceptibility of pitch diameters to measurement errors, unique measuring equipment must be used in order to obtain an accurate reading. Although there exist many types of techniques to measure pitch diameter, there exist three most commonly utilized methods, namely the three-wire measurement method, the optical comparators and specialized micrometer screw gages which ensures the accuracy of your reading!

Three-Wire Method

The three-wire method makes use of a traditional, flat anvil micrometer screw gage to measure pitch diameter. Three separate wires of pre-measured diameter would be placed within the pitch of the threads before the gage of the wire is chosen. This enables the wires to stay in contact with the pitch line while simultaneously extending beyond the outside diameter of the thread. With another micrometer screw gage, the distance between the wires on the opposite sides are measured and used as inputs in prescribed formulas to derive the pitch diameter.

Optical Comparators

Optical comparators make use of the fundamental basis of optics and light to determine the pitch diameter. A magnified silhouette of the threaded object is projected on a screen and a specialized software would be used for image analysis and to obtain the pitch diameter. Through the use of optical comparators, it would result in a high degree of accuracy in pitch diameter measurements. However, a downside of it would be its expensive cost!

Specialized Micrometer Screw Gages

A commonly used instrument would be a form of micrometer screw gage known as a thread mic or a pitch mic. It was designed for the purpose of measuring the pitch diameters of cutting threading tools. To make use of this instrument, the ratchet of the micrometer is turned continuously until the spindle comes into contact with the thread flanks. The pitch diameter can then be read off from the micrometer scales. This method provides an efficient and accurate, but yet a low-cost way of measuring the pitch diameter!

At Willrich Precision Instrument, we provide a large selection of thread gages that would definitely meet the rigorous needs of your business! Browse through our exciting inventory and shop for quality thread gages today. If you need assistance with any product purchase, call us at 866-945-5742 or email us at sales@willrich.com today.

Product Spotlight: Fowler Trimos V7 Electronic 2D Height Gage

Height gages have
been in use for many decades to measure heights of objects. Height gage can
also be used to measure a variety of other parameters. These include diameters,
radii, and more. Over the years, height gages have evolved and today, we have
digital height gages where a lot of the processes are automated. This makes it
easier for machinists to use height gages.

One such height gage is the Fowler Trimos V7 Electronic 2D Height Gage.
This is an easy-to-use height gage that comes with
a modern touch screen. It comes with a lateral insert holder that makes it
great for use in a workshop. In order to improve clarity, the touch screen is
very simplified so that the machine operator will not get distracted by
clutter. In continuance with the drive to simplify things, the number of
buttons is limited to only what is absolutely necessary.

The advantage of
this is that operating the machine becomes very simple so one can easily
perform complex operations simultaneously. The other advantage is that not a
lot of training is required to get new workers to operate the machine. This
saves a lot of time and costs, ensuring that productivity is always at its

About Fowler High Precision

Fowler High
Precision Company is widely recognized as one of the leading manufacturers of precision
equipment in the world. The company was founded in 1946 and since then, it has
grown to where it is today. Fowler High Precision has managed to remain dynamic
thanks to strategic partnerships with other companies such as Wyler and Trimos
among others. This way, Fowler has ensured that they remain at the peak of the
technology curve. This is reflected in the state-of-the-art products that the
company supplies such as the Fowler Trimos V7 Electronic 2D Height Gage.

Features of Fowler Trimos V7 Electronic 2D Height Gage

Here’s a quick look
at some notable features of Fowler Trimos V7 Electronic
2D Height Gage:

  • 2D programming,
  • Large range of
  • Measuring ranges 400
    to 1800mm
  • Manual or motorized
  • All possible
    adjustments without tools
  • Interfaces RS232 and
  • Simple and
    easy-to-use graphic interface
  • Electronically
    adjustable measuring force

 Get Fowler
Trimos V7 Electronic 2D Height Gage from Willrich Precision!

Willrich Precision
is your go-to supplier of top-quality precision instruments such as the Fowler
Trimos V7 Electronic 2D Height Gage. We have been serving numerous customers
for over 50 years and we have established a reputation as a trusted business
partner. Our unique business model focuses on providing solutions to our
clients. This is why we go out of our way to offer advice and assistance to
clients who are not sure what instruments work best for their needs.

When you come to Willrich Precision, you can have peace of mind that you are getting
top quality precision instruments at very competitive prices.

To know more about
our Fowler Trimos V7 Electronic 2D Height Gages and the benefits they provide,
do not hesitate to contact us today.

Top Tips To Facilitate Rockwell Hardness Tests

Hardness is defined as the measure of
resistance that a material has when force is applied to it. Others may refer to
hardness as the ability of a substance to resist scratching, cutting or
abrasions. There is a direct relationship between the level of hardness of an
object and the level of its resistance. The greater the hardness, the greater
the resistance. Hardness is largely determined by a substance’s microstructure.
Hardness matters because it gives us an indication of how the material will
stand up against pressure. This has implications on how the material can be
used and what kind of pressure it can withstand. For this reason, measuring
hardness is a routine procedure in most quality control processes. Here are
some of the ways of facilitating Rockwell
hardness tests

Check Indenter

Before carrying out a Rockwell hardness test,
it is critical to ensure that there is no chipped or cracked diamonds on the indenter.
This is because any of such anomalies are likely to lead to errors in the
readings. Experts recommend checking the indenter every week with a magnifying
device (such as a Jeweler’s eye loop). However, it might be hard to tell if the
indenter is damaged. For this reason, if you notice consistent erroneous
readings, this might be another clue that there is a problem with the indenter.

Verify Hardness Readings

Before performing a test, experts recommend
that you test the hardness of a test block. This is a block with a hardness
that is already known and thus the idea is to check if the reading from the
tool is consistent with the known hardness. It is usually standard to do at
least three tests in order to establish a consistent reading. It is also
standard to discard the first reading after an indenter or an anvil change.

Keep the Rockwell Hardness Tester Clean

Debris, dirt and other contaminants can affect
readings. It is important to remove and clean the indenter and anvil before you
start testing. It is also critical to do this at every break between the shifts
so that all parts of the tester stay clean throughout the day.


When testing objects that are rough or that
have textured surfaces, it is important to be aware that these kinds of
surfaces can affect the readings obtained from the tester. To help overcome
these kinds of problems, ensure that you lightly sand the surface to reduce the

Watch out For Movement

If you get any movement of the part while
doing a test, you should discard the reading and perform another test. You
should also avoid including these readings in your final average. This is
because the movement of the part can affect the accuracy of the test.

Watch out for the Edge

When you take readings very close to the edge,
it might cause problems with the reading and might even damage the indenter.
Ensure that all readings are made at least 2.5 times the diameter of the
indenter from the edge. The key to note is that if the metal buckles outward,
then you have positioned the indenter too close to the edge.